Metabolic adaptation in first week after calving and early prediction of ketosis type I and II in dairy cows
The aim of this study is to determine differences in metabolic adaptation in first week after calving between healthy and cows that develop ketosis type I (diagnosed 3-6 weeks after calving) or II (diagnosed 2-3 weeks after calving) after calving. Experiment included 50 healthy cows, 50 ketosis I type cows and 50 ketosis II cows. Animals were selected retrospectively form 435 Holstein cows that were constantly monitored. Monitoring is regular procedures during all season. Blood samples were taken in first week after calving. Concentration of ketone body was measured every two day by test stripes from the end of 1st until the end of 6th week. Any color change in test strip (5 mg/dL, trace, or higher) was indicator of ketosis in cows. Cows were clinically evaluated to determine any clinical symptoms (reduced appetite, rumen atony, behavioral changes). In cows with ketosis type I were noted higher concentrations of NEFA and lower concentrations of glucose and insulin compared to control group. Higher concentrations of BHB, TNF-α and total bilirubin were noted in cows with ketosis type II compared to control group. Value of RQUICKI index was lower, and AST was higher in blood of ketosis II cows compared to ketosis I cows. Prediction of ketosis type I is significant by logistic regression model which include insulin, NEFA and glucose as independent predictor (area under ROC curve, AUC= 0.78, p<0.05). Possibility of ketosis I development increases with NEFA increase and decrease of glucose and insulin concentrations. Prediction of ketosis type II development is significant by logistic regression model which include BHB, TNF-α and total bilirubin where increase of these parameters indicates higher possibility of ketosis II development (AUC= 0.87, p<0.01). Differentiation of ketosis type I and II is significant by logistic regression model which include value of RQUICKI and AST (AUC= 0.74, p<0.05). Proportion of the variance in the metabolic parameters that is predictable from the BHB in first week after calving were significantly higher in ketotic (10.9-18.5%) then in healthy cows (2.5-9.1%). Cows in ketosis type I and II show different metabolic adaptations in first week after calving. These differences allow prediction of development a exact type of ketosis. Metabolic adaptation in function of ketogenesis was developed in first week after calving, early before manifestation of ketosis.