Comparison of cytological, microbiological and histopathological findings of genital tracts in cows with different degree perineal conformation disorder
The effect of perineal conformation on genital tract health in cows.
AbstractThe aim of this is to investigate cytological, microbiological and histopathological findings of the genital tracts in cows with different degree perineal conformation (PC) disorder. Totally, 28 cows brought the slaughterhouse were materials. Information about to age, body weight, reproductive status, number of parturitions, days in milk (DIM) and the reason for slaughtering of the cows was obtained from the owners. Before slaughtering, cows were evaluated in terms of PC and then they were divided into four groups with equal numbers of cows according to PC disorders: group I (GRI) normal; group II (GRII) mild; group III (GRIII) moderate and group IV (GRIV) severe. PC disorders of the cows were graded on a scale in terms of vulvar angle, vulvar length over ischial arch, depth of anus and perineal length. A body condition score (BCS) was determined in cows. The perineal region and vagina were inspected for vaginal discharge and vaginal mucosal appearance, respectively. Pneumovagina was classified as negative, suspicious and positive. Sterile swab samples were taken from vagina, cervix and uterus for bacteriological culture and identification. For cytological examination, smears were taken from vagina, cervix and uterus. Tissue samples were taken from vagina, cervix and uterus for histopathological examination. Statistically, Pearson’s correlation, Fisher’s exact tests and regression analysis were performed for all data. Clinically, characters of the vaginal discharge (serous, foamy, mucous, purulent and urine–mixed) and vaginal hyperemia increased in GRIII and GRIV. Microbiologically, as parallel to the PC disorder, E. coli in Enterobacteriaceae family was the most common bacteria in Group III and Group IV. As PC disorder in the groups increased, cytological examination findings were found to be significant, similar to clinical and microbiological examination. However, histopathological examination gave more meaningful results in groups. Statistic results pointed out that difference between the groups in terms of vaginal mucosa color, cervical and uterine microbiology was significant. In conclusion, PC disorder in cows constitutes predisposition for many genital canal diseases that may be the cause of infertility. The presence of genital canal diseases can be suspected in cattle using the PC scale. Therefore, it is appropriate to evaluate the health status of the genital canal with other diagnostic methods (microbiology, cytology and histopathology), especially in cows with PC disorder.