Comparative study on the potency of trivalent vaccine of foot and mouth disease in different cattle breeds and triggered immune response signaling pathway
The Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a very common disease which causes infection in almost all cloven-footed animals including cattle, camel, goat, and sheep. The objectives of current study were to determine the prevalence of FMD in different breeds of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and to evaluate and compare the potency of locally available trivalent vaccine against FMD in Achai (local breed of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and exotic pure breeds i.e. Holstein Frezien and jersey. In addition, observed the immune signaling pathway and the involvement of IL-17 cytokine response. A total of 135 sera samples including from Achai, Jersey and Holstein Frisian breeds were collected to know the strains of Foot and mouth disease (FMD) circulating in different cattle breeds. The strain-based prevalence against O, Asia 1 and A antibodies against all three tested strains was found. In Holstein Frisian O strain (33.33%) was the highest circulating FMD viral strain followed by Asia1 and A. In Jersey breed, O strain (26.66%) was significantly higher followed by A and Asia 1.Whereas, In Achai breed, O strain (13.33%) was also found to be the highly prevalent FMD viral strain followed by Asia 1. Furthermore, potency of FMD vaccine, prepared at the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore, Pakistan besides Deccivac water-based, Germany were used through Complement Fixation Test. The data revealed non-significant difference (p>0.05) among the three different groups when evaluated at day 30 and significant difference (p>0.05) among the titers of antibody of FMD trivalent preparation of UVAS besides water-based Deccivac on 90th day of immunization screening. A higher titer was also recorded in Achai cattle breed followed by Holstein Fresian and Jersey of UVAS made vaccine Desivac vaccine trialed. In addition, initial involvement of IL-17 immune response was observed among challenged groups and the result was supported by IgY, that showed significantly higher ratio at day 30, 60 and 90.