Management of post-urethral urinary obstruction due to struvite uroliths in a female buffalo calf (Bubalus bubalis)
Obstructive urolithiasis is an economically relevant disease of the ruminants. Male buffalo calves are most frequently affected compared to females because of their anatomical peculiarities. The occurrence of obstructive urolithiasis in females is a rare finding and requires documentation. A three-month-old female buffalo calf was presented with history of oliguria and stranguria in the past two days. General clinical examination identified that the animal was dull and restless with a rough hair coat, and congested mucus membrane. Abdominal palpation identified the presence of an enlarged urinary bladder. Based on history and clinical signs the condition was diagnosed as urinary tract obstruction. The hematological changes identified were neutrophilia and monocytosis and the serological parameters were within the normal range. Microscopic examination of the collected urine following sedimentation revealed the presence of numerous struvite calculi. It was decided to manage the case conservatively rather that going for invasive surgical procedure such as tube cystotomy. High resistance was encountered when a urinary catheter was passed through the urethra in the post-urethral region. The obstruction was relieved when the catheter was carefully maneuvered into the urethra. The animal was treated with parenteral antibiotics and oral ammonium chloride therapy following which the calf made an uneventful recovery.