COMPARISON OF THE EFFECT OF TWO DIFFERENT JOINT LAVAGE TECHNIQUES ON SURVIVAL RATE IN CALVES WITH SEPTIC ARTHRITIS: 248 CASES
Septic arthritis, defined as joint inflammation, is common in newborn calves when the passive transfer of maternal immunoglobulins fails. An unhygienic environment, lack of umbilical care and insufficient colostrum after birth predispose to the formation of septic arthritis. Arthrotomy and through-and-through needle joint lavage techniques are employed in the management of septic arthritis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two different joint lavage techniques on survival rate in calves with septic arthritis presented to Atatürk University Veterinary Faculty Animal Hospital between 2018-2021. A total of 248 calves with septic arthritis were included in the study. One hundred twenty (48.4%) of the 248 calves had a complete bacterial analysis of the infected joint. The most isolated bacteria in the infected joint of calves was Staphylococcus aureus (30%). Two different lavage methods (through-and-through needle [n = 138] and arthrotomies [n = 96]) were used for joint lavage. A through-and-through lavage method was performed on 138 calves. Out of these, 114 (82.6%) animals made a full recovery, while 24 (14.4%) were humanely euthanized or died. Conversely, arthrotomy was employed in 96 calves, with 81 (84.4%) animals making a full recovery, while 15 (15.6%) calves were humanely euthanized or died. Additionally, Of the 248 calves, 120 (48.5%) obtained a thorough bacterial examination of the affected joint. Eighty-nine out of 120 (74.1%) calves had at least one bacterial isolate found during bacterial culture. Two bacterial isolates were discovered from synovial samples of 31 (25.8%) calves. Staphylococcus aureus (30%), Escherichia coli (25.8%), Trueperella pyogenes (24.1%), and other pathogens (13.4%), including Enterococcus species, Bacillus species, Proteus species, and Corynebacterium species, were the most commonly isolated bacteria in the infected joint of calves. There was no statistically significant difference in the survival rates between the two joint lavage techniques (P = 0.72). The chances of success of treatment are related to whether the patient has been treated before, and the stage of the disease, but both treatment methods can be used successfully in the treatment of arthritis since the success rates are more or less the same.