Images of Normal Ocular Fundus in Saanen Goats

  • Osman Bulut Assistan Proffesor
  • Busra Kibar Kurt Department of Surgery, Veterinary Medicine, Aydin Adnan Menderes University
  • Zeynep Bilgen Sen Department of Surgery, Veterinary Medicine, Aydin Adnan Menderes University
  • Zeynep Bozkan Department of Surgery, Veterinary Medicine, Aydin Adnan Menderes University
Keywords: caprine, optic disc, retina, tapetal, small ruminant


Imaging of the fundus during ophthalmological examination of the eye allows the evaluation and diagnosis of many diseases. Traditionally, eye examination is performed by using an ophthalmoscope. Indirect ophthalmoscopy is also used for visualization of the posterior segment in animals. By this way, posterior segment structures of the eye such as optic disc, retina, tapetal and nontapetal regions, retinal vessels and choroidea can be examined. Ultrasonography and special camera systems are also used currently to image for the ocular fundus. The structure of the fundus can vary between species, as well as between races within the same species. No study on fundus imaging of Saanen goats were found among the ophthalmological studies performed in goats. The ClearView fundus camera was used by holding it towards the goat's pupils, and both eyes were examined. Data on the tapetal region, optic disc in the nontapetal region, retina and retinal vessels were obtained. All goats tapetal regions contained predominantly blue or green (most frequently). The nontapetal region was predominantly dark brown. The optic disc was located at the tapetal-nontapetal region border mostly located in the tapetal region. The form of the optic disc was oval and round. A gray spot in the center of the disc represents the remnant of the hyaloid artery or Bergmeister’s papilla. Bergmeister papillae were found in 29 animals in total, and in only one eye of 10 animals. The tapetal fundus in goats had a mild uniform stippling at the end of the capillaries called stars of Winslow. These stars are characteristic, giving these species a singular ophthalmoscopic aspect.  While Winslow’s stars were observed in 35 animals in total, they were found in only one eye in seven goats. Our study aimed to obtain the normal reference values of the fundus of Saanen goats and to contribute to the literature.

Original Articles