Reproductive problems in small ruminants (Sheep and goats): A substantial economic loss in the world
Reproductive problems in small ruminants
The primary fortitude of this study is to overview the environmental, nutritional and also some main infectious causes related to reproduction in small ruminants mainly sheep and goat, that caused loss in milk, meat and wool production globally. Mostly 90% small ruminants are reared by rural household globally. The major issues of which are poverty, lack of new techniques and proper management skills. Families usually own a few small ruminants, which are used for religious celebrations, serve as savings or emergency cash or provide meat or milk. The main issues regarding reproduction are discussed in this article. Reproductive problems mainly arise due to nutritional deficiencies and some pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites and also by the effect of environmental stress. The primary reproductive diseases which are commonly associated with the reproductive system of small ruminants are brucellosis, leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis fever, Listeriosis, campylobacteriosis along with nutritional deficiencies, socio-sexual and photoperiods also affect the reproductive system. Vaccination and nutrition are mainly advised to control these issues of reproduction. The environment control system can also compensate for this economic loss. This paper represents a limited contribution for the review of reproductive problems in small ruminants’ primary focus on sheep and goat which was neglected worldwide in past.