Systemic embolic hepatitis and pneumonia caused by subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in Hanwoo (Korean indigenous) cattle : A case report


A grazing 44-month-old Hanwoo (Korean indigenous cattle, KIC) was found in a position of lateral recumbency. Upon inspection, decreased heart sound and rate, hypothermia, scleral injection, and subcutaneous petechial hemorrhage were observed. Significant neutropenia and moderate dehydration were observed after a complete blood count. Serum biochemistry showed azotemia, increased globulin, decreased A/G ratio, increased AST, CK, phosphorus, and magnesium. Blood gas analysis revealed hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. Ultrasonography of the right abdomen and chest showed hyperechoic nodules in the liver and anterior lung field. Clinically, it was diagnosed as late stage sepsis, and a necropsy was performed after euthanasia. Embolic inflammation was found in the liver, lung, and spleen, rumenitis and ruminal parakeratosis were observed, and the pH of the recovered ruminal fluid was 5.5. Based on the necropsy findings, the Hanwoo was assessed as having died of sepsis, systemic embolic hepatitis, and pneumonia caused by subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). While SARA is thought to be prevalent in Hanwoo raised with concentrated feed, few studies or case reports that would confirm this have been published to date.